According to, cities found within Nordic countries are at the forefront of the chart, representing over half of the leading cities located in continental Europe.

CDP officials said that "with recent CDP data showing that 80 per cent of cities globally are facing climate hazards and that 70 per cent expect those hazards to become more intense, concerted climate action on their part is crucial."

Many of the 119 worldwide cities included in CDP's list have been present in previous charts, as well, meaning that "action to tackle climate change is becoming mainstream for many of the world’s urban areas", as per the organization.

CDP's ranking includes both capital cities and smaller municipalities and as per the organization's data, 80% of the European urban areas that made it into the ranking have under one million inhabitants.

Twelve Nordic cities in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland and Iceland leak the pack and they account for over half of the European municipalities that made it into the A List in 2023.

Stockholm is one of the cities that made great sustainability progress since it required its households to sort and dispose of their food waste separately. This is because food waste can be treated in order to become biogas, which can be used to power things like cars and buses, but also biofertilizers, which have a much lower impact on the environment.

It's not just about waste, however, as the Danish city of Helsingør works on adapting to climate change-related events, as the rising sea levels pose a threat to many coastal areas around the world.

Paris in France and Münster in Germany were also appreciated for their efforts to better inform the people about climate change and how we can mitigate and adapt to the changes related to these events.

Barcelona, Copenhagen and Athens are all part of CDP's list of A-ranked cities that have the most complex strategies when it comes to climate change mitigation and adaptation.